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Charles Darwin's Beagle Diary. Columbia American History Online. Consultado em 22 de novembro de Consultado em 30 de dezembro de Athenaeum Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith.
American Public Media. Speaking of Faith Radio Program. Darwin, C. Fossil Mammalia Part 1. Col: The zoology of the voyage of H.
In: Hodge, Jonathan; Radick, Gregory. The Cambridge Companion to Darwin. In: Ruse, Michael. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. TalkOrigins Archive.
In: Tucker, Aviezer. A Companion to the Philosophy of History and Historiography. Col: Blackwell Companions to Philosophy.
Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. Notes and Records of the Royal Society. Londres: Andre Deutsch Ltd publicado em 1 de setembro de In: Knight, David M.
Burlington: Ashgate. Commons Wikiquote Wikispecies. Charles Darwin. Biologia Evolutiva. Medalha Real. Laureados — Medalha Wollaston. Medalha Copley.
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Wikimedia Commons Wikispecies Wikiquote Wikisource. Emma Wedgwood. Principais trabalhos. Imagens e media no Commons. Medalha Real com John Tyndall.
Precedido por Hermann von Meyer. Medalha Wollaston Aus dem Fundort, einer Muschelschicht, schloss er, dass sich die beiden ausgestorbenen Tiere zeitgleich mit den sie umgebenden Muscheln entwickelt haben müssten.
Darwin unternahm währenddessen von April bis November Exkursionen in das Landesinnere von Uruguay und Argentinien. Juni den Pazifischen Ozean.
Juli eintraf und mehrere Wochen blieb. Darwin unternahm vom August bis September seine erste Expedition durch die Anden , die ihn ein erstes Mal bis nach Santiago führte.
Februar wurde er Zeuge des schweren, dreiminütigen Erdbebens bei Valdivia. Bei einer zweiten Anden-Expedition im März und April entdeckte er, dass das weit von der Küste entfernte Gebirge hauptsächlich aus submariner Lava bestand.
Er fand fossile und versteinerte Bäume und begann, erste eigene geologische Theorien zu entwickeln.
Bis zum Sommer unternahm er zwei weitere Expeditionen, bei denen er Untersuchungen in den Anden durchführte. Nach den bis zum 7. Die Vermessungsarbeiten dauerten gut einen Monat.
Darwin schenkte zu diesem Zeitpunkt weder dieser Bemerkung noch den Galapagosfinken besonders viel Aufmerksamkeit.
November Tahiti erreicht, wo das Schiff zehn Tage ankerte. Während der Weiterfahrt nach Neuseeland vervollständigte Darwin seine Theorie über die Entstehung der Korallenriffe , die er bereits an der Westküste Südamerikas begonnen hatte.
Den zehntägigen Aufenthalt im Norden der neuseeländischen Nordinsel nutzte Darwin erneut zu Exkursionen in das Landesinnere.
Als die HMS Beagle am Auf einem seiner Ausflüge begegnete er einigen Aborigines , die ihm — für einen Shilling — ihre Fähigkeiten im Speerwurf demonstrierten.
In Hobart genoss Darwin, den es immer mehr nach Hause zog, die Gastfreundschaft des Generalvermessungsinspektors George Frankland — Er feierte seinen Geburtstag, fing Skinke und Schlangen, sammelte Plattwürmer und zahlreiche Insekten, darunter Mistkäfer , die er in Kuhfladen fand.
Die letzte Station des zweimonatigen Aufenthaltes in Australien war Albany. Die weitere Fahrt führte ihn auf die Kokosinseln sowie nach Mauritius und an der Südspitze von Madagaskar vorbei nach Südafrika.
Darwin eilte auf dem Landweg nach Kapstadt , wo er sich mit John Herschel traf. Auf St. Das heimatliche England rückte näher, doch am Oktober gegen 9 Uhr morgens lief das Schiff in den englischen Hafen Falmouth ein.
Darwin machte sich sofort auf den Weg zu seiner Familie in Shrewsbury. Zusätzlich hatte er Seiten seines Reisetagebuchs beschrieben.
Darwins Name war bereits vor seiner Rückkehr im Oktober in wissenschaftlichen Kreisen bekannt, da Henslow, ohne dass Darwin davon wusste, einige seiner Briefe als Letters on Geology veröffentlicht hatte.
Der freundschaftliche Umgang mit Owen kühlte in späteren Jahren jedoch ab. Darwin hatte den Vögeln auf der Reise kaum Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt, die gesammelten Exemplare auch nicht den einzelnen Inseln zugeordnet.
Gould zeigte nicht nur, dass alle Arten eng verwandt heute als Darwin-Finken zusammengefasst sind, sondern dass bei diesen Vögeln keine klare Trennung zwischen Arten und Varietäten möglich ist, also keine klaren Artgrenzen bestehen.
Darwins Überlegungen zur Entstehung der Arten waren begleitet von einer breit gefächerten Lektüre in den Bereichen Medizin, Psychologie, Naturwissenschaften, Philosophie, Theologie und politische Ökonomie.
Insbesondere lehnte er inzwischen die Naturtheologie Paleys ab, in deren Tradition er in Cambridge ausgebildet worden war.
Viele von Darwins späteren Experimenten und Argumenten dienten dazu, Paleys argument from design zu widerlegen und Anpassungen auf natürliche Ursachen, nicht göttliches Wirken zurückzuführen.
Dabei verwendete Darwin häufig die gleichen Beispiele wie Paley und ähnliche Argumente. Darwin war spätestens im Sommer von der Veränderlichkeit der Arten überzeugt und begann, Informationen zu diesem Thema zu sammeln.
Auf S. Als Kristallisationspunkt für die Ausformulierung seiner Selektionstheorie erwies sich das Wachstumsgesetz, wie es Thomas Robert Malthus in seinem Essay on the Principle of Population formuliert hatte und den Darwin im September las.
Somit kann das exponentielle Wachstum nur für eine beschränkte Zeit aufrechterhalten werden und irgendwann kommt es zu einem Kampf um die beschränkten Ressourcen.
Die Zeit in London war die arbeitsreichste in Darwins Leben. Beagle — heraus. Sein zunächst als 3. Band von The narrative of the voyages of H.
Much of that book presents evidence that not only supports evolution, but at the same time refutes creationism. In Darwin's day, the evidence for his theories was compelling, but not completely decisive.
Anonymous The New York Times 21 April Balfour, J. Bannister, Robert C. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Bowler, Peter J.
University of California Press. Browne, E. Janet Charles Darwin: vol. London: Jonathan Cape. Darwin, Charles Extracts from letters to Professor Henslow.
Cambridge: [privately printed]. Notebook B: Transmutation of species. Darwin Online. Narrative of the surveying voyages of His Majesty's Ships Adventure and Beagle between the years and , describing their examination of the southern shores of South America, and the Beagle's circumnavigation of the globe.
Journal and remarks. London: Henry Colburn. The foundations of The origin of species: Two essays written in and Journal of researches into the natural history and geology of the countries visited during the voyage of H.
Beagle round the world, under the Command of Capt. Fitz Roy, R. London: John Murray. Darwin, Charles; Wallace, Alfred Russel On 19 February at , Japanese warplanes attacked Darwin in two waves.
It was the same fleet that had bombed Pearl Harbor , though a considerably larger number of bombs were dropped on Darwin than on Pearl Harbor.
The attack killed at least people and caused immense damage to the town, airfields, and aircraft. These were by far the most serious attacks on Australia in time of war, in terms of fatalities and damage.
They were the first of many raids on Darwin. Darwin was further developed after the war, with sealed roads constructed connecting the region to Alice Springs to the south and Mount Isa to the south-east, and Manton Dam built in the south to provide the city with water.
On Australia Day 26 January , Darwin was granted city status. After the disaster, 30, people of the population of 46, were evacuated, in what turned out to be the biggest airlift in Australia's history.
On 17 September the Adelaide—Darwin railway was completed, with the opening of the Alice Springs-Darwin standard-gauge line. Darwin has played host to many of aviation's early pioneers.
Darwin was home to Australian and US pilots during the war, with airstrips built in and around Darwin.
Today Darwin provides a staging ground for military exercises. Darwin was a compulsory stopover and checkpoint in the London-to-Melbourne Centenary Air Race in The official name of the race was the MacRobertson Air Race.
Winners of the race were Tom Campbell Black and C. The following is an excerpt from Time magazine , 29 October Third Day.
Biggest sensation of the race came just before dawn on the third day, when burly Lieutenant Scott and dapper Captain Black flew their scarlet Comet into Darwin.
They had covered the last miles over water on one motor, risked death landing on a field made soggy by the first rain in seven months.
Said sandy-haired Lieutenant Scott: "We've had a devil of a trip. Darwin lies in the Northern Territory on the Timor Sea.
The city proper occupies a low bluff overlooking Darwin Harbour , flanked by Frances Bay to the east and Cullen Bay to the west.
The remainder of the city is flat and low-lying, and coastal areas are home to recreational reserves, extensive beaches, and excellent fishing.
Darwin and its suburbs spread in an approximately triangular shape, with the older south-western suburbs—and the city itself—forming one corner, the newer northern suburbs another, and the eastern suburbs, progressing towards Palmerston, forming the third.
The developers announced that this includes hotels, residential apartments, and public space. The largest shopping precinct in the area is Casuarina Square.
The most expensive residential areas stand along the coast in suburbs such as the marina of Cullen Bay part of Larrakeyah , Bayview and Brinkin ,  despite the risk these low-lying regions face during cyclones and higher tides, adequate drainage and stringent building regulations have reduced the potential damage to buildings or injury to residents.
More recent developments near Lyons subdivision includes the suburb of Muirhead. Darwin has a tropical savanna climate Köppen Aw   with distinct wet and dry seasons and the average maximum temperature is similar all year round.
Prolonged periods of no precipitation are common in the dry season in Northern Australia particularly in the Northern Territory and northern regions of Western Australia , although a no-rainfall event of this extent is rare.
The 3pm dewpoint average in the wet season is at around Extreme temperatures at the Darwin Post Office Station have ranged from The highest minimum temperature on record is The wet season is associated with tropical cyclones and monsoon rains.
Darwin's highest Bureau of Meteorology verified daily rainfall total is The hottest months are October and November, just before the onset of the main rain season.
Because of its long dry season, Darwin has the second-highest average daily hours of sunshine 8. The sun passes directly overhead in mid-October and mid-February.
The average temperature of the sea ranges from Darwin occupies one of the most lightning-prone areas in Australia. In , the Darwin population averaged 33 years old compared to the national average of around 37 years  assisted to a large extent by the military presence and the fact that many people opt to retire elsewhere.
Darwin's population changed after the Second World War. Darwin, like many other Australian cities, experienced influxes from Europe, with significant numbers of Italians and Greeks during the s and s.
Darwin also started to experience an influx from other European countries, which included the Dutch , Germans , and many others.
At the census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were: [N 2]  . The five largest groups of overseas-born were from the Philippines 3.
The other languages most commonly spoken at home were Tagalog and Filipino 3. Christianity has the most adherents in Darwin, with 56, followers accounting for There were 26, or The city has been governed by a city council form of government since The council consists of 13 elected members, the Lord Mayor , and 12 aldermen.
The City of Darwin electorate is organised into four electoral units or wards. The wards are Chan, Lyons, Richardson, and Waters.
The constituents of each ward are directly responsible for electing three aldermen. Constituents of all wards are directly responsible for electing the Lord Mayor of Darwin.
The rest of the Darwin area is divided into two local government areas —the Palmerston City Council and the Shire of Coomalie.
These areas have elected councils that are responsible for functions delegated to them by the Northern Territory Government , such as planning and garbage collection.
Government House , the official residence of the Administrator of the Northern Territory , is on the Esplanade.
Historically, Darwin voters elected Country Liberal Party members. Darwin has had a history of alcohol abuse and violent crime, with 6, assaults in , of which resulted in broken jaws and noses—more than anywhere else in the world, according to the Royal Darwin Hospital.
Mitchell Street, with its numerous pubs, clubs and other entertainment venues, was one of the areas policed by the CitySafe Unit, officially launched by the NT Chief Minister Paul Henderson on 25 February It was credited with success in tackling alcohol abuse linked to crime,  and the NT police were looking at establishing a specialist licensing enforcement unit in The First Response Patrol, run by Larrakia Nation, which helps to move homeless Indigenous women out of dangerous situations, was credited with the fall in sexual assaults in The two largest economic sectors are mining and tourism.
Given its location, Darwin serves as a gateway for Australian travellers to Asia. The energy production is mostly off-shore with oil and natural gas from the Timor Sea , although there are significant uranium deposits near Darwin.
Darwin's importance as a port is expected to grow, due to the increased exploitation of petroleum in the nearby Timor Sea and to the completion of the railway link and continued expansion in trade with Asia.
During , a number of major construction projects started in Darwin. One is the redevelopment of the Wharf Precinct, which includes a large convention and exhibition centre, apartment housing including Outrigger Pandanas and Evolution on Gardiner , retail and entertainment outlets including a large wave pool and safe swimming lagoon.
The Chinatown project has also started with plans to construct Chinese-themed retail and dining outlets.
Tourism is one of Darwin's largest industries and a major employment sector for the Northern Territory. In —, 1. They stayed for 9.
The Territory is traditionally divided into the wet and dry, but there are up to six traditional seasons in Darwin. It is warm and sunny from May to September.
Humidity rises during the green season, from October to April bringing thunderstorms and monsoonal rains which rejuvenates the landscape.
Tourism is largely seasonal with most tourists visiting during the cooler dry season which runs from April to September.
The military presence that is maintained both within Darwin, and the wider Northern Territory, is a substantial source of employment. The agreement between the United States and Australia would involve a contingent of Marines arriving in Darwin in , with the total number rising to a maximum of 2, troops by on six-month rotations as well as a supporting air element including F Raptors, F Joint Strike Fighters and KC refuelers.
Marines had arrived in Darwin from Hawaii on late 3 April The agreement between the two governments remains hidden from public scrutiny.
Education is overseen territory-wide by the Department of Education and Training DET , whose role is to continually improve education outcomes for all students, with a focus on Indigenous students.
Darwin is served by a number of public and private schools that cater to local and overseas students. Over 16, primary and secondary students are enrolled in schools in Darwin, with 10, students attending primary education, and 5, students attending secondary education.
There were 9, students attending schools in the City of Darwin area. There are over 7, students enrolled in government schools and 1, students enrolled in independent schools.
Most schools in the city are secular, but there are a small number of Christian, Catholic and Lutheran institutions.
Students intending to complete their secondary education work towards either the Northern Territory Certificate of Education or the International Baccalaureate only offered at Kormilda College.
Schools have been restructured into Primary, Middle, and High schools since the beginning of Darwin's largest university is the Charles Darwin University , which is the central provider of tertiary education in the Northern Territory.
It covers both vocational and academic courses, acting as both a university and an Institute of TAFE. There are over 5, students enrolled in tertiary and further education courses.
On 1 July, Territorians celebrate Territory Day. In Darwin, the main celebrations occur at Mindil Beach , where a large firework display is commissioned by the government.
The Seabreeze festival, which first started in , is held on the second week of May in the suburb of Nightcliff. It offers the opportunity for local talent to be showcased, and a popular event is Saturday family festivities along the Nightcliff foreshore, which is one of Darwin's most popular fitness tracks.
The Speargrass Festival is held annually the week prior to July's first full moon and celebrates the alternative Top End lifestyle.